June 16, 2017

Success story of Adarsh Raj Shah (IITG)

Hello, readers, my name is Adarsh Raj Shah, I am computer science graduate, batch 2016 and will be pursuing M.Des. (Interaction Design) at IIT Guwahati (2017-2019). Thanks to Prasanna Sir for providing me the opportunity to share my DAT/interview experience at IIT Guwahati.

About Me:

I worked as a full-stack developer at a Bangalore based startup. I quit my job after CEED 2017 as I was confident with my performance and wanted to work on my portfolio. It was my first attempt. I got a decent rank of AIR 134, score 51(general), I guess enough to get an interview call from all the institutes. Since my college days, my interest was into interaction design hence I had most of my work based on interaction design in my portfolio.

About CEED:

Will not talk about CEED much as the blog has enough material to get you through the process perfectly. Though I do have one tip out of my experience: you need to be quick in sketching, doesn’t matter if you are good at it or not. In the end, what matters is how clearly you can express your solution of the given problem, so start sketching from now. And solving previous question paper will help you a lot to get an idea of the CEED exam.

Experience at IIT Guwahati:
It was my first time I visited Guwahati. I was really excited to visit the campus as I have heard a lot of compliments about the beauty of IITG campus. Since I did my schooling at Nainital, Uttarakhand, I was excited to go back again to nature’s lap :) As soon as I entered the campus, I was stunned by its beauty. The lush green campus was mesmerizing and drizzling was like an icing on the cake :D On the day of DAT, there were 2 questions, the first question asked us to choose one character (real life or fictional), an animal (real life or fictional), an object and a place (real or fictional). Using all these we were supposed to come up with an essay/story. After 15 mins break, we were asked to illustrate the same story in the given frames (ques 2, max. 6 frames).

Suggestion: You need to be a quick sketcher here to illustrate the story and creative to make it attractive and eye catchy.

Just after DAT, the interview list was published according to the serial number. I entered the interview room and I was not shocked at all because I already had an idea about the scene inside the room. As I heard from others, there were 15 people in the interview panel :D But still nervousness was hovering around. I wish them and they asked me to sit. I kept my portfolio at the end of the table and soon it was circulated around. They asked for my introduction and as I had working experience, asked about my work/software/tools used. Asked about my design interest as I was interested in interaction design. They asked what challenges I faced while I was working and how I used to solve it. Asked me where I want to see myself after 5 years.

As they have a multidisciplinary course and my portfolio was mostly on interaction design, they asked me that will I be able to do other design (product, animation, visual, transportation) and how will it be useful in my case. I think this is where I made an impression. I gave a couple of examples of the projects (Interaction + product design) done by one of the graduating student and they were like “good”. Then they asked if I get selected, what type of projects I would like to do here. Told them as I already had some projects/technologies in my mind. Then they returned my portfolio back and asked me to leave. I smiled, thanked them and left the room. The interview lasted for around 12-13 minutes.

The result was published the next day and there it was, my name in the selected candidate list :)

The key for success in the interview is to be genuine, calm and cool during the interview.

They panel will be really friendly and supportive. Read about their course structure and projects by professors/students. Just be yourself and rest will follow :)

Link to my full portfolio:

Thanks a lot, TeaCup Blog and Prasanna Sir!

Feel free to contact and all the best!

Adarsh Raj Shah, M.Des – IITG (2017-19)

(shoot at: hello[at]adarshraj[dot]in)

Success Story of Bala Prasanth (IIT-G)

Hi! I’m Balaprasanth, a Civil engineer and future Industrial designer, from Salem - Tamilnadu. Here is my success story! I hope it will gain future aspirants’ confidence in the journey towards design. Here, I’m sharing my thoughts, mindset and learning from different experiences till the admission at IITG.

This story is loooong, so as my struggle.. but the end will make feel happy!

Design instinct..

I’ve always been creative and shown my interests in sketching, model making, crafting and visual designing. But I was doing all these stuff up to competition level and as hobby. It was the day in my final year of BE when I started searching for honing my actual skills in a professional way, I ended up reading about Master of Design programme. When I read about CEED exam, it did make me feel like as if I found a treasure that would fulfill this life with utmost happiness. And yes, truly it is a great treasure-gate that opened up the world of design, which every soulful design aspirant longing for.


            Design masters will choose us when we really have an eye of conceptualization. I had concepts popped up in various real-life experiences, that insisted out me to go for executing it. It naturally pushes every limit irrespective of academic background and any inferior thoughts, to shape our self a designer.

CEED Exam..

          Here sketching is important but for clearly communicating variant ideations and NOT for showing up any artistic skills in the exam. No standard preparation materials are needed for the exam. Practice on previous year question papers and exploratory search of the same are the key processes enough to follow. Blogs will help here narrowing down the search and share experiences.

Part A can be solved using observational practice and basic analytical workouts. Current affairs and GK could save the Part A cutoff as these questions can be answered quickly. Yes, time is the predominant factor which grab our hands to get through CEED. I tried to complete as much questions I can solve in that golden hour. Attempting negative marking questions lastly and questions with high marks firstly helped me managing time.

Part B tests our design thought process and creative skills. I started with 50 mark question, the first question which I felt that can be answered well and quick. Every question has unique set of design requirements and evaluation criteria. I answered exactly what they asked to solve with more concepts. Even a very undetailed yet fresh and innovative concept sketch could get good score. 45 minutes to 1 hour was my time limit scheduled for this question and I managed well. All remaining compulsory questions can be answered with spontaneous ideas and simple cartoon sketches.

One should enjoy running CEED race to express design interest effectively in it!

After CEED Exam..

          I’m interested in products and its branding visuals. So, my portfolio was contented to it. I compiled my portfolio with few design sketches from initial ideation to final view, photographs of clay models, logo designs, posters, typography plays, photographs and paintings.

Never look for any references in making portfolio projects as it might restrict one’s design thinking to that reference’s limit and even lose creative confidence.

I made all the concepts and works from real life experiences. For instance, I conceptualized a mobile case that can respond on impact and safeguard screen cracking, along with additional features. This example was my design issue and my experiences were the design criteria through which I ideated many concepts and evaluated for best one out of it.

Studio tests and Interviews..
            After disappointment from missing IITB chance and IISc weird interview experience, I was longing for a chance to show my skills to someone who really consider this year. Continued to IITD, IITG &; IITK.

In IITD DAT, they’d evaluated aesthetic sense and 3D concept modeling skill. Interview had questions about the DAT works, academic background and why design (for me, especially why design from civil engineering? as engineering itself has many design branches). They were in a rush and so they didn’t even had time to take a look into my portfolio. I made a mistake while answering here.. I answered to justify my interest with portfolio projects which they already ignored. On spot tasks are expected in IITD interview. The panel had 3 faculties.

            In IITK, direct interview was there. They’d asked about my background and asked few questions related to the field of my interest - product design. Why design?- can be answered.. but, why not mtech/arch/art/craft/fashion/other pg?- can’t be answered satisfactorily. I said the true reason, yes, none created an impact as MDes does, while deciding it as a future career. They made me to compare two milk shake cans which they had drunk at that time, and asked to choose the best out of them. The panel had 6 faculties.

The Golden opportunity..
          After ignorance, disappointments and rush minutes that made my interviews unluckier, final opportunity was IITG. I was the last candidate of the list. This time, my mind was set to face the experience rather longing to get selected there.

            Studio test began, in first part (45minutes) we were asked to build a story/ experience or an essay with any four words from four categories – a character, a place, an animal and an object. I started writing a fictional story and enjoyed making twists and climax. After 15 mins of break, the second part of studio test (45 minutes) began and was surprisingly to illustrate the same story in 6 slides which I completed satisfactorily.

            My interview was scheduled on 3rd day lastly. When I entered the room, I handed over my works to faculties at both ends. The most surprising and good part of the interview in IITG was, they looked into my portfolio and that made them concerned to listen about my failures in previous interviews. At that time, I said what I known and what I missed to learn so that I couldn’t succeed the previous interviews. My skills and confidence were satisfied here and was reflected in result announced in the next day.

            Finally, the golden opportunity is in my hands now! I ran over to the department, called and thanked all seniors who helped and guided in this journey. Not an end, but a sweet beginning!

To my friends..
            I would like to mention here that I hadn’t been into any coaching classes or materials. Once you decide to become a designer, you should live as a designer. I learnt lot of things through google search and from various design blogs. Even after a lot of effort for CEED, portfolio and studio tests, many candidates failed at interview stage just because they lack behavioral design thinking in front of interview panel. It is important to have self-confidence and self-analysis in design practice for every idea you have. It is not just about how well you design, but how much interest and effort you are ready to give for your idea in execution.

            Be focused and get updated with today’s design culture, you will surely get it! 😉

All the very best! Cheers! 👍  

Let’s discuss.. 👇

June 07, 2017

Success story of Annu Verma (IIT-B IDC, Interaction Design)

What's up friends ! My name is Annu Verma, I am a graduate in ECE and will be studying Interaction design at IDC (2017-2019). I am here to share my experience with the entire design school selection process.

Brief About Me :-

1. I worked as a web application developer for three years and the only part I enjoyed was UI/UX , although I did not suck that bad at coding.

2. CEED came across a rescue to my monotonous existence in Jan 2017 and luckily I stumbled upon this wonderful blog. I would like to thank Prasanna sir for giving me a chance to share my experience

Additional :- I make handmade cards and few YouTube videos in my spare time.

About CEED :-

I agree with everyone when they say, this can be the only blog that you will need in order to get a good score in CEED. Clearly the exam does not test your fine art abilities, of course it is always better to get the proportion right but you can wonders if you got the right solution approach. Whatever you draw, just remember two important factors "User Experience" and "Feasibility". Studying in IIT was always my dream so I applied for IISC, IDC and IIT D. I had no clue I could apply for NID, I missed it. :(

IISC, Bangalore :-

1. If you happen to live in north , I would suggest you pre book your tickets to Bangalore. It is incredibly expensive at the last moment. Also, the accommodation.

2. My DAT went hideous, I had no time to prepare for it despite of knowing what all I had to study. There were engineering questions in first section, I only attempted maths set, the coding problem and completely screwed up the question on output voltage (Yeah, I know ! despite being an EC graduate). I would suggest that you brush up your engineering basics, as they had questions from every stream. I think if you made it this far you could do okay in spatial ability and Design awareness ability.

3. Interview - 10 Mins ! Possibly the shortest interview ever. The biggest mistake I did was to not carry a portfolio, they did not stress on asking for portfolio but I am sure it would have made my interview experience a little less dreadful. Guys ! No matter what Always, Always carry a portfolio. Even if it has 10 pages of your drawings. Moving on, the hardest question I had to face was why design ? If you do not have a design background, prepare for this question. The other question was If I were to use GPS in one of the things kept on the table, which one would it be? (Put your answers in the comment box). In the end they asked me to design a remote from scratch and as I told you I am the most useless EC graduate, I embarrassed myself.


1. I applied for Industrial design and Interaction design and got call letters for both the streams. The application form itself was very interesting, It actually helped me a lot in understanding the possibilities of design. Just be creative with your words and work.

2. Product Design DAT - Horrible ! Horrible ! Horrible ! Material handling - Guess what ? I was late to the test and my model had thumb prints all over. Just to mention, I am kind of allergic to fevicol. It was very embarrassing to walk along those master creators with their clean models by your side. Practice, Practice and Practice with paper. Make boxes, vehicles , everything that you can think of.

3. Interaction Design DAT - I strongly Believe that I nailed it :D . There were no limitations on technology and I made a story board too. I had one of the instructor over my head while I was drawing :D

4. Interviews :- I appeared for interaction first, two panelists were there asked me If I can convert a Photoshop UI to working HTML/CSS (yes, I can) , asked me some basic color codes in hex. This time I had my portfolio consisting of few artworks. Gave the file to one of the panelist and the box full of cards to other. There were questions on how do I chose colors and how do I edit my videos. Later, they snapped out of it and asked me why is interaction my second choice. I tried to hide my design illiteracy with some random answer, They got really angry when I could not name the courses that they will be teaching so he moved on to GK. Shockingly, I knew the answers. I wish I stayed confident though. He asked me to come back for one more round at 1630 hrs to meet the other panel for the same course. I loved the second panel, they were very appreciative and kept saying "nice";. They had to repeat twice asking me to leave, guess I got too comfortable. :D

For Product design, there were 6 panelists. It was an interesting discussion but somehow I felt that I am coming out as little arrogant. It was too late till I realized. Stay humble friends ! Those people are the masters.

IIT Delhi:

1. DAT was divided into two parts - First one was to design a tablet cover for two different women which could be interchanged , made up side down and it won't change the design much. The second was to make a model of a vehicle for workers with no arms.

2. Interview - I had fun before the interview, got to interact with lot of seniors. I wished I had talked to them before, to get this clarity. In Interview they asked me to draw a bottle cover for a water bottle, I asked the users would be ? (I realized what an idiotic question. :D ) but after the look of utter disappointment, they said design it for children and I drew a quick doodle. meanwhile they were looking at my cards and my videos and also made fun of kaala chasma video :( but I did not give up and stayed positive and confident. I guess that worked or may be the fact that I could code.

I am sorry if this got too long ! Sharing some links here related to my work. I wish you guys all the success for your exams and preparations.

Instagram username :- creative_chhori

Facebook Page :- https://www.facebook.com/creativechhori/

Youtube Link :-https:/www.youtube.com/channel/UCzfmqpwP3y4j_FjXFrTqLRQ

June 05, 2017

Anonymous Experience of IIT-B, IIT-G and NID

Hey there! How you doing? I am (name withheld) , a web application developer from Pune. My native is Tamil Nadu.

I wrote both NID DAT (Applied for Interaction design in NID) and CEED for the year 2017 and even cleared the prelims (Luckily!). I am not going to say much about -how to clear the prelims, as enough is said already in all the remaining blogs.

I got 20th rank in general category in NID DAT and 62nd rank (General category) in CEED (Amazing isn’t it? I myself was amazed) but still I did not make into any of the institutes (neither NID nor IIT) because they thought I am too handsome to be in those colleges.... Just kidding. Please remember that even if you are having a rank of 1 in both CEED and NID DAT there is no guarantee that you will get a seat. This is a failure story hence start reading with caution.

No animal was harmed when writing this blog.


I applied for IxD in NID. I did not have any portfolio work related to IxD but I had some logo designs, digital arts and some sketches. In the DAT Mains of NID there were 3 questions-

  1. Design a mobile app targeting people of rural areas, explain the concept and draw logo and some pages of the app.
  2. Explain some applications of drones in rural areas. Explain the implementation using a storyboard(First the problems to be solved by the drones in rural areas is to be listed).
  3. Design a “wearable” interactive device that will work as an add-on for the physical/mental limitations of Indian farmers.

(Yes, NID is in love with the rural areas!)

Honestly speaking, I did well and was confident that I will be selected.

Prasanna sir helped in reviewing my portfolio before I went to NID, thanks for that sir (but I failed you master... forgive me!).

In the interview, I was asked questions about JavaScript, Angular JS.etc as I told them that I am a website developer. They were not even interested in my portfolio. I had to force hand it to them.

In the final merit list my rank was 18 but only first 8 ranks from the general were taken in.


We were not given any accommodations in Mumbai. Of all the IITs IDC’s application process is a little different. We had to send a courier to IDC

  • which has the application form ,
  • any 3 of our portfolio works,
  • a critique of any 2 designs
  • and a critique of a newspaper article.

After seeing our applications IDC decided not to give us any accommodation that year (2017).... Kidding again! IIT Bombay was unable to accommodate us.

I had applied for Interaction, Communication and Animation design , in hopes that they will take me in at the least one stream. Big mistake!!! I failed to qualify in all the 3 streams and started questioning my purpose of existence.

DAT for Interaction Design –

Design an interactive device for visually challenged people to help them cross roads. Before designing the problems faced by the visually challenged needs to be listed down and how the device solves any one of those problems need to be explained with a storyboard.

DAT for Communication Design-

  • Write advantages/disadvantages of demonetization(essay)
  • How demonetization affected your personal life(essay)
  • Create a brand for Indian Railways(logo, symbol, font and implement this in any of the products like tickets, posters, carriage etc).

DAT for Animation Design-
Was given a story like –“A client is admiring a chaiwallas way of making tea and suddenly they heard a women screaming...” and was asked to complete it and make a comics out of it including the character sketch of the chaiwalla.

Later in the interview, questions were asked mostly on the portfolio. Interview was held just to look at your portfolios and ask questions from that. The people in the interview were really cool and admired the portfolios in ways in which I myself would not have admired it. Some of the portfolios were ridiculed and made fun of too.

After all this I was rejected. Give my accommodation money back, IITB/IDC!!!!!!


Of all the IITs everyone’s favorite was iit guwahati because they did not charge any application fee. They collected money only from the people who were shortlisted for DAT and interview. They even announced the final results the very next day of the interview. The campus too was amazing and it rained during the summers in Guwahati on 2017....Can you believe that!!!!
Coming back to the topic-

We were asked to choose any character(real life/fictional), an animal(real life/fictional), an object(non living thing) and a place(real/fictional) . Using all these we were first supposed to write an essay/story and later were asked to draw a storyboard from the same story/essay we wrote.

The interview panel had all the professors of design in it. I estimate the number to be around 15 people.

They examined my portfolio and asked questions regarding my current profession and logos. Suddenly they might surprise you by asking you to list the states around Assam. Be ready for anything.

Finally got rejected in IIT Guwahati too. I was actually happy when I was not selected into IIT Guwahati because of all the IITs, Guwahati is worthy enough to reject me (crying loudly inside).

Mistakes I think I made-
I was not sincere enough to create a good portfolio. My portfolio was a lazy single file consisting of some random finalized logos. I did not even include the thought process for those final products. I was not even sincere enough to talk to the seniors or check out the portfolios of people who came with me.

People who came with me had bundles and trolleys of portfolio works. I actually had a mild heart attack after seeing all those. Even some of those people having truckloads of portfolio got rejected. So the final DAT process of the IITs is still a mystery to me.

I hope this blog is useful. I will send the pictures of the DAT question papers later, if possible. I just hope that at least my essay will be accepted to be displayed in the teacupblog (crying more inside).

If you think that my experience sharing was useful just fulfill my only wish-
Just in case you get selected to the iits ,go to the design professors and loudly say –“I was sent by the guy whom you rejected long ago. He sends his regards”. (The professors won’t care but it is still worth it).

All the best people!!! Keep rocking!!

April 27, 2017

Balaprasanth S. experience of IISc DAT and interview

 I am Balaprasanth S, from Salem Tamilnadu, a graduate from BE civil engineering. I would like to share my experience with IISC DAT/Interview.

Date: 20.4.2017 Thursday

In call letter, they’d asked us to report the institute by 9 am. IISC CPDM is located near the security gate which is more like a stone building of hill station. We had visited the department before the test day evening and asked about the Lecture hall and process from the office. The office staff had responded in a very polite and cool manner. As I wasn’t shortlisted for IDC, I was very much depressed at that time. But, the artworks studio and officer of CPDM had changed my mood entirely. I just loved the whole atmosphere.

                The test/interview day. My name was allotted for Lecture hall 6 which is located just opposite to the CPDM. Stone pavement blocks guided to the test hall. Each’d sit in a desk and invigilator arrived 5 mins before the test time. The test started sharply at 9.30. The timing was from 9.30 to 12. DAT consisted of three sections.

Poor performance in any one of three section may lead to disqualification (mentioned in the question paper).

                Section 1: Technical ability. It consisted of 11 questions (1st question was compulsory (10 marks) and any five (5 marks each) to be attended from rest of 10 questions)
                1. Mathematics questions (compulsory one, they informed that we’ll be disqualified if we miss this question) 5x2=10 marks
                                a. Probability: conditional probability, P(b/a)=?, Given P(a/b)=0.3; P(a)=0.4; P(b)=0.5
                                b. Number series of 11 numbers: To find Mean and median
                                c. Matrix multiplication: (1x3) by (3x3)
                                d. Area of circle: Cow tied to eat grass has increased from 19m to 30m. Find the increased area of grazing. (pi = 22/7)
                                e. Graph coordinates: 4 coordinates and to find the shape from four options.
                2. To find cost of production. Given many tasks and paisa per minutes.
                3. Cantilever truss with two vertical loadings. We are asked to find every member forces. (>8 members)
                4. Given Kinetic energy and mass. To find force and acceleration.
                5. Mech question (Thermodynamics)
                6. Flow of liquids diagram. Vertical flow, intersection flow. Which requires minimum heat exchange.
                7. Arrange materials in ascending Young’s modulus. Steel, Copper, Lead and Aluminum
                8. Material property based question
                9. Mechanical calculation question
                10. Electronic circuit diagram. To find output and parameters.
                11. Program code for some process.

Section 2: Spatial ability. It consisted of 9 questions and all were compulsory (Drawing question was must one, they informed that we’ll be disqualified if we miss this question) each 5 marks.
                1. Odd one out: Square, Heart, Triangle, Rectangle, Pentagon
                     Answer with reason
                2. Odd one out: Square, Circle, Heart, Triangle, Pentagon
                     Answer with reason
                3. A hose with single line strip was given twisted. To find how it look when stretched. (4 options)
                4. Shadow of cylinder was given. To recast the shadow with a cuboid in front of it.
                5. Small Photo of ceramic jug was given. Big box to be filled with outline of the same. (must one)
                6. Small Photo of Banana and Big box with outline of the same were given. Outline to be shaded as in the photo. (must one)
                7. Grey shaded outline of house was given in two-point perspective. To be filled with Ventilator, Two doors and Two windows.
                8. Printed cube picture was given. To find the exact paper cutout from four options.
                9. Top view and front view were given (both were same: a square inside a square). To draw two possible solids in Isometric projections.

Section 3: Design awareness ability. It consisted of 5 questions and all were compulsory
                1. Five Materials given: Titanium alloy, Silicon rubber ,... Each one property with application to be answered.
                2. To give five comparisons between Induction stove and oven. Only function was to be cooked for many people. Finally, which one is best and why?
                3. Properties of Aerogel: invented by someone, nice feel to touch and have on hands, sounds like a glass hitting table when poured, particles are filled of air and lightweight. Select one household product and suggest with the properties of aerogel for two improvements. (not aerogel the material, but only its properties)
                4. Paper cups are being non-recyclable as it is coated with a layer of wax for preventing paper absorption. Suggest two novel concepts to overcome the issue with recyclable properties.
                5. Five products: Oculus rift, Nissan Trial X,. Give 5 specific features of any one.

Test was over by 12pm and we went to the CPDM department. There they asked us to wait for Interview slot announcement. Around 12.30, they had posted the interview slot announcement in the department notice board. It was scheduled from 1.30pm to 5.30pm (10mins for each candidate but it varied as it took 15 to 25 mins per candidate). Some students got interview slot scheduled for the next day forenoon (which was known at that time only. So, everyone to be prepared for staying two days)

My slot was on 4.20pm.

Interview was on 5.30pm.

First they asked why product design from civil engineering and what made me to come here. I explained my interests towards sketching and conceptual ideas. They asked if you are interested in sketching you might have gone for cartoon making right? I managed. The next 8 to 10 questions were continuously about civil engineering and what are my research interests and where i want to be placed. They asked my portfolio and viewed for 10 mins. One of the panel faculty asked me that whether the works in portfolio are done by me or someone else. I confidently said all those works are done by me with a pleasing smile. Finally, They'd asked about a sketch from my portfolio for why did i draw that. Overall it was started like why did i choose product design, irrelevant to the UG department. They'd continuously shot with the same question in around 10 different ways. It was an entirely different experience when compared with other candidates who'd got interviewed there. 

March 16, 2017

Gayatri Chudekar (Shristi - Information Arts)

I have read success stories on teacup blog..and they were inspiring. All those stories are of those people who got into iit or Nid..I missed both...do you really want my story in success stories?😂

Internship helps!
Anyway what helped me is Prasanna's timely guidance. I took his advice and found an internship and that helped me to see and learn from actual projects and working for the client.

Design habits
There weren't any particular habits i followed...I did general sketching, objects and human figures ...I still think my sketching is average though. Then i solved past year questions papers. Srishti paper was based on sketching type of questions unlike NIDs or IITs which has MCQs.  Doodling helped for such kind of questions. 

About interview
I remembered Prasanna's last minute tips and that helped me in interview. Interview was mostly about how I think and about my work in Portfolio.

Presentation tips
For portfolio i had the work done but Prasanna's tips helped me in arranging and refining my work.I learnt that major part of work is the way it is presented.The idea of making  illustration book also helped in getting through.
Most importantly Prasanna helped in having the confidence in my work, goals and that helped me get through.

Thank you very much :)

Some pages from my portfolio:

February 09, 2017

NID DAT 2016 Interaction design paper

With kind courtesy of Chetna Meena,
I am posting the question paper of Interaction design asked in 2016.
These are tow of the questions that Chetna remembered, out of several other questions. If someone remembers more, please feel free to contribute :)